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3D food printing applications related to dysphagia: a narrative review

3D food printing applications related to dysphagia: a narrative review

Lorenz, Tim, Iskandar, Michèle, Baeghbali, Vahid ORCID: 0000-0001-5054-6747, Ngadi, Michael and Kubow, Stan (2022) 3D food printing applications related to dysphagia: a narrative review. Foods, 11 (12):1789. pp. 1-15. ISSN 2304-8158 (Online) (doi:

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Dysphagia is a condition in which the swallowing mechanism is impaired. It is most often a result of a stroke. Dysphagia has serious consequences, including choking and aspiration pneumonia, which can both be fatal. The population that is most affected by it is the elderly. Texture-modified diets are part of the treatment plan for dysphagia. This bland, restrictive diet often contributes to malnutrition in patients with dysphagia. Both energy and protein intake are of concern, which is especially worrying, as it affects the elderly. Making texture-modified diets more appealing is one method to increase food intake. As a recent technology, 3D food printing has great potential to increase the appeal of textured foods. With extrusion-based printing, both protein and vegetable products have already been 3D printed that fit into the texture categories provided by the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative. Another exciting advancement is 4D food printing which could make foods even more appealing by incorporating color change and aroma release following a stimulus. The ultra-processed nature of 3D-printed foods is of nutritional concern since this affects the digestion of the food and negatively affects the gut microbiome. There are mitigating strategies to this issue, including the addition of hydrocolloids that increase stomach content viscosity and the addition of probiotics. Therefore, 3D food printing is an improved method for the production of texture-modified diets that should be further explored.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology.
Uncontrolled Keywords: dysphagia; 3D printing; nutrition; texture modification
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
T Technology > T Technology (General)
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Food & Markets Department
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 17:23

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