Skip navigation

Comparing individuals within and across situations, groups and species: Metatheoretical and methodological foundations demonstrated in primate behaviour

Comparing individuals within and across situations, groups and species: Metatheoretical and methodological foundations demonstrated in primate behaviour

Uher, Jana ORCID: 0000-0003-2450-4943 (2015) Comparing individuals within and across situations, groups and species: Metatheoretical and methodological foundations demonstrated in primate behaviour. In: Emmans, David and Laihinen, ‎Arto, (eds.) Comparative Neuropsychology and Brain Imaging. Neuropsychology: An Interdisciplinary Approach, 2 . Lit Verlag, Berlin, pp. 223-284. ISBN 978-3643906533 ISSN 00926566 (doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3848.8169)

[img]
Preview
PDF (Scan of published version)
18196 UHER_Comparing_Individuals_Within_and_Across_Situations_2015.pdf - Published Version

Download (3MB) | Preview

Abstract

Individuals are explored in various kinds of phenomena and contexts. But how can scientists compare individual variations across phenomena with heterogeneous properties that require different methods for their exploration? How can measurements of individual variations be made directly comparable between different studies, groups of individuals or even species? This research applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to elaborate metatheoretical concepts and analytical methodologies for quantitative comparisons of individual variations within and across situations, groups and species using behavioural phenomena as examples. Established concepts from personality psychology, differential psychology and cross-cultural and cross-species research are systematically integrated into coherent frameworks and extended by adding concepts for comparing individual-specific variations (i.e., “personality”) between species. Basic principles for establishing the functional comparability of behavioural and situational categories are elaborated while considering that individuals from different groups and species often show different behaviours and encounter different situations and therefore cannot be studied with identical variables as is done in assessment-based research. Building on these principles, the chapter explores methodologies for the statistical analyses of the configurational comparability of constructs and of mean-level differences between groups and species. It highlights that situational properties are crucial for quantitative comparisons of individual variations. Fundamental differences between observational methods and assessment methods are explored, revealing serious limitations and fallacies inherent to comparisons of individuals on the basis of assessments. Implementations of the methodological principles and concepts presented are illustrated with behavioural data from four primate species (weeper capuchins, mandrills, toque macaques and rhesus macaques).

This research was funded by a grant from the German Research Foundation (DFG; UH-249/1-1).

Item Type: Book Section
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cross-species and cross-cultural comparative methodology, scientific measurement and quantification, configurational comparability/ structural or construct equivalence, patterning and positioning effects, limitations of assessment methods, weeper capuchin (Cebus olivaceus), mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), toque macaque (Macaca sinica), Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), sex differences, gender differences, species differences
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Education & Health
Faculty of Education & Health > Department of Psychology, Social Work & Counselling
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2017 17:36
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/18196

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics