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Inter-relationships between frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia in older people who are admitted to acute frailty and medical wards: is there an older adult quartet?

Inter-relationships between frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia in older people who are admitted to acute frailty and medical wards: is there an older adult quartet?

Smithard, David, Hansjee, Dharinee, Henry, Darrien, Mitchell, Laura, Sabaharwal, Arjun, Salkeld, Jo, Yeung, Eirene, Younus, Osman and Swaine, Ian ORCID: 0000-0002-3747-1370 (2020) Inter-relationships between frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia in older people who are admitted to acute frailty and medical wards: is there an older adult quartet? Geriatrics, 5 (3):41. ISSN 2308-3417 (Print), 2308-3417 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5030041)

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Abstract

With increasing age the prevalence of frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition and dysphagia increases. These are all independent markers of outcome. This study explores the prevalence of these four and explores relationships between them. Methods: A convenience sample of 122 patients admitted to acute medical and frailty wards were recruited. Each was assessed using appropriate screening tools; Clinical Frailty Score (CFS) for frailty, SARC-F for sarcopenia, Nutritional Risk Tool (NRT) for nutritional status and 4QT for dysphagia. Results: The mean age of the participants was 80.53 years (65–99 years), and 50.37% (68) were female. Overall, 111 of the 122 (91.0%) reported the presence of at least one of the quartet. The median CFS was 5 (1–9), with 84 patients (68.9%) having a score of ≥5 (moderate or severely frail); The median SARC-F was 5 (0–10), with 64 patients (52.5%) having a score of ≥5; The median NRT was 0 (0–8) and 33 patients (27.0%) scored ≥ 1. A total of 77 patients (63.1%) reported no difficulty with swallowing/dysphagia (4QT ≥ 1) and 29 (23.7%) had only one factor. Sixteen patients (13.1%) had all four. There was a significant correlation between nutritional status and dysphagia, but not with frailty or sarcopenia. There were significant correlations between frailty and both sarcopenia and dysphagia. Conclusions: In our sample of acute medical and frailty ward patients, there was a much higher prevalence than expected (91%) of either: frailty, sarcopenia, undernutrition or dysphagia. The prevalence of all four was present in 13% of patients. We suggest that frailty, sarcopenia, nutritional risk and dysphagia comprise an “Older Adult Quartet”. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the “Older Adult Quartet” on morbidity and mortality.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: dysphagia, nutrition, frailty, sarcopenia
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RT Nursing
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences
Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences > Institute for Lifecourse Development
Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences > Institute for Lifecourse Development > Centre for Chronic Illness and Ageing
Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences > School of Health Sciences (HEA)
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2021 13:46
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
Selected for REF2021: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/34430

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