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Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate supplementation on markers of immune response in master triathletes: A randomized controlled trial

Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate supplementation on markers of immune response in master triathletes: A randomized controlled trial

Naclerio, Fernando ORCID: 0000-0001-7405-4894, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Seijo, Marcos, Ashrafi, Nadia, Nielsen, Birthe ORCID: 0000-0002-0849-4987 and Earnest, Conrad, P. (2018) Effects of protein vs. carbohydrate supplementation on markers of immune response in master triathletes: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. ISSN 0731-5724 (Print), 1541-1087 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2018.1528906)

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Abstract

Objective:
This study examines the long-term effects of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein versus carbohydrate on indirect markers of immunity during 10 weeks of endurance training in master-aged triathletes (n = 16, age 35–60 years).

Methods:
Participants were randomly assigned to either a hydrolyzed beef protein (PRO, n = 8) or nonprotein isoenergetic carbohydrate (CHO, n = 8) condition, which consisted of ingesting 20 g of each supplement, mixed with water, once a day immediately post workout, or before breakfast on nontraining days. Salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1–3) were measured before and after performing an incremental endurance test to volitional exhaustion at both pre and post intervention. Additionally, baseline levels of platelets, neutrophils, eosinophil basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes were determined at pre and post intervention.

Results:
No significant changes in baseline concentration and secretion rate of salivary HNP1–3 were observed for either treatment. The CHO group showed a nonsignificant decrease in resting HNP1–3 concentrations following the intervention (p = 0.052, effect size d = 0.53). Protein supplementation demonstrated a significant reduction in lymphocyte counts pre to post intervention (mean [SD]: 2.30 [0.57] vs. 1.93 [0.45] 103/mm3, p = 0.046, d = 0.77), along with a moderate but not statistically significant increase (d = 0.75, p = 0.051) of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

Conclusions:
In master-aged triathletes, postworkout ingestion of only protein, with no carbohydrate, may not be as effective as carbohydrate alone to attenuate negative long-term changes of some salivary and cellular immunological markers. Future studies should consider the co-ingestion of both macronutrients.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Immunosuppression; endurance training; salivary Human Neutrophil Peptides (HNP1-3); antimicrobial peptides (AMP); Senior Athletes.
Subjects: Q Science > QP Physiology
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Science and Medicine in Sport and Exercise
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Life & Sports Sciences
Last Modified: 16 May 2019 12:34
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/21591

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