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The development and preliminary validation of the challenge and threat in sport (CAT-Sport) Scale

The development and preliminary validation of the challenge and threat in sport (CAT-Sport) Scale

Rossato, Claire J. L. ORCID: 0000-0003-0306-5435, Uphill, Mark A., Swain, Jon and Coleman, Damian A. (2016) The development and preliminary validation of the challenge and threat in sport (CAT-Sport) Scale. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16 (2). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1612-197X (Print), 1557-251X (Online) (doi:

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This paper outlines the development and preliminary validation of a sport-specific measure of athletes’ experience of challenge and threat. Three independent studies assess the content validity, factor structure, criterion validity and internal consistency of the Challenge and Threat in Sport (CAT-Sport) Scale. In study 1, a group of 25 athletes and 2 experts assessed the content validity of items derived from existing measures of challenge and threat. Participants examined a pool of 25 items, and were asked to rate the items’ applicability to their experiences of challenge and threat in sport. Items failing to reach applicability of 50% were excluded from further analysis. In study 2, 197 runners completed the 21 items retained from study 1 before competition. A principal components analysis with an oblique, direct oblimin rotation yielded a 12-item, two-component solution with items indicative of athletes’ experiences of challenge and threat. In study 3, 201 shooters completed the 12- item CAT-Sport before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 12-item 2-factor correlated model provided acceptable model fit with good internal consistency and criterion validity. Collectively these studies provide support for the CAT-Sport as a measure of athletes’ experience of challenge and threat in anticipation of sport competition.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Experience; Demands; Emotions; Sport; Performance
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Science and Medicine in Sport and Exercise
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Life & Sports Sciences
Last Modified: 25 Apr 2019 14:24
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: GREAT a
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: GREAT 1

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