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Wetting and Reaction of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi Solder with Cu and Ni Substrates

Wetting and Reaction of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi Solder with Cu and Ni Substrates

Rizvi, M.J., Chan, Y.C., Bailey, C., Lu, H., Islam, M.N. and Wu, B.Y. (2005) Wetting and Reaction of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi Solder with Cu and Ni Substrates. IEEE/TMS Journal of Electronic Materials, 34 (8). pp. 1115-1122. ISSN 0361-5235 (Print), 1543-186X (Online) (doi:10.1007/s11664-005-0239-6)

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Abstract

The wettability of newly developed Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi lead-free solder on Cu and Ni substrates was assessed through the wetting balance tests. The wettability assessment parameters such as contact angle (ϑc) and maximum wetting force (Fw) were documented for three solder bath temperatures with three commercial fluxes, namely, no-clean (NC), nonactivated (R), and water-soluble organic acid flux (WS). It was found that the lead-free Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi solder exhibited less wetting force, i.e., poorer wettability, than the conventional Sn-37Pb solder for all flux types and solder bath temperatures. The wettability of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi lead-free solder on Cu substrate was much higher than that on Ni substrate. Nonwetting for Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi and Sn-Pb solders on Ni substrate occurred when R-type flux was used. A model was built and simulations were performed for the wetting balance test. The simulation results were found very close to the experimental results. It was also observed that larger values of immersion depth resulted in a decrease of the wetting force and corresponding meniscus height, whereas the increase in substrate perimeter enhanced the wettability. The wetting reactions between the solder and Cu/Ni substrates were also investigated, and it was found that Cu atoms diffused into the solder through the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) much faster than did the Ni atoms. Rapid formation of IMCs inhibited the wettability of Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi solder compared to the Sn-Pb solder.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Wettability, Sn-2.8Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi, wetting force, contact angle, flux, surface, tension, finite element modeling, intermetallic compounds
Pre-2014 Departments: School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis > Computational Mechanics & Reliability Group
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Department of Computer Science
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Department of Computer Systems Technology
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Department of Mathematical Sciences
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Last Modified: 14 Oct 2016 09:02
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/914

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