Modeling the control of Trypanosomiasis using Trypanocides or insecticide-treated livestock
Hargrove, John W., Ouifki, Rachid, Kajanguri, Damian, Vale, Glyn A. and Torr, Stephen J. (2012) Modeling the control of Trypanosomiasis using Trypanocides or insecticide-treated livestock. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6 (5):e1615. ISSN 1935-2727 (Print), 1935-2735 (Online) (doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001615)
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In Uganda, Rhodesian sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, and animal trypanosomiasis caused by T. vivax and T. congolense, are being controlled by treating cattle with trypanocides and/or insecticides. We used a mathematical model to identify treatment coverages required to break transmission when host populations consisted of various proportions of wild and domestic mammals, and reptiles.
An Ro model for trypanosomiasis was generalized to allow tsetse to feed off multiple host species. Assuming populations of cattle and humans only, pre-intervention Ro values for T. vivax, T. congolense, and T. brucei were 388, 64 and 3, respectively. Treating cattle with trypanocides reduced R0 for T. brucei to ,1 if .65% of cattle were treated, vs 100% coverage necessary for T. vivax and T. congolense. The presence of wild mammalian hosts increased the coverage required and made control of T. vivax and T. congolense impossible. When tsetse fed only on cattle or humans,R0 for T. brucei was ,1 if 20% of cattle were treated with insecticide, compared to 55% for T. congolense. If wild mammalian hosts were also present, control of the two species was impossible if proportions of non-human bloodmeals from cattle were, 40% or, 70%, respectively. R0 was ,1 for T. vivax only when insecticide treatment led to reductions in the tsetse population. Under such circumstances R0,1 for T. brucei and T. congolense if cattle make up 30% and 55%, respectively of the non-human tsetse bloodmeals, as long as all cattle are treated with insecticide.
In settled areas of Uganda with few wild hosts, control of Rhodesian sleeping sickness is likely to be much more effectively controlled by treating cattle with insecticide than with trypanocides.
|Additional Information:|| First published: May 15, 2012.  Published as: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, (2012), Vol. 6, (5): e1615.  Copyright: (c) 2012 Hargrove et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases is an open-access journal.  The definitive version can be accessed at PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases - http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001615.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||tsetse, Glossina, Rhodesian sleeping sickness, trypanosomiasis|
|Subjects:||S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)|
S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
|School / Department / Research Groups:||Natural Resources Institute|
Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment
Natural Resources Institute > Pest Behaviour Research Group
|Last Modified:||27 Aug 2013 11:41|
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