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QD-antibody conjugates via carbodiimide-mediated coupling: a detailed study of the variables involved and a possible new mechanism for the coupling reaction under basic aqueous conditions

QD-antibody conjugates via carbodiimide-mediated coupling: a detailed study of the variables involved and a possible new mechanism for the coupling reaction under basic aqueous conditions

East, Daniel A., Mulvihill, Daniel P., Todd, Michael and Bruce, Ian J. (2011) QD-antibody conjugates via carbodiimide-mediated coupling: a detailed study of the variables involved and a possible new mechanism for the coupling reaction under basic aqueous conditions. Langmuir, 27 (22). pp. 13888-13896. ISSN 0743-7463 (Print), 1520-5827 (Online) (doi:10.1021/la203273p)

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Abstract

A detailed study into the optimization of carbodiimide-mediated coupling of antibodies (Ab) and quantum dots (QD) for use in cellular imaging has been undertaken. This involved the grafting of commercially available carboxyl-modified QDs (Evident Technologies “Lake Placid Blue” Evitag and eBioscience’s eflour nanocrystals) with anti-Cdc8 Abs to produce conjugates with specific affinity for fission yeast tropomyosin Cdc8 protein. The water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was used to activate the QDs prior to their incubation with antibody, and a range of QD-carboxyl/EDC/Ab mole ratios were used in the experiments in attempts to optimize fluorescence and bioaffinity of the conjugate products (EDC to QD-carboxyl-600 nmol/15pmol to 0.12 nmol/15 pmol and QD to Ab 120 pmol/24 pmol to 120 pmol/1.2 pmol). It was observed that a specific “optimum” ratio of the three reactants was required to produce the most fluorescent and biologically active product and that it was generated at alkaline pH 10.8. Increasing the ratio of Ab to QD produced conjugate which was less fluorescent while reducing the ratio of EDC to QD in the activation step led to increased fluorescence of product. Conjugates were tested for their possession of antibody by measurement of their absorption at OD280 nm and for their fluorescence by assay λmaxem at 495 nm. A quantitative assay of the bioactivity of the conjugates was developed whereby a standardized amount of Cdc8 antigen was spotted onto nylon membranes and reacted with products from conjugation reactions in a sandwich-type colormetric assay The “best” conjugate was used in intracellular imaging of yeast Cdc8 protein and produced brighter, higher definition images of fixed yeast cell actin structure than a fluorescein–Ab conjugate routinely produced in our laboratory. The QD–Ab conjugate was also significantly more resistant to photobleaching than the fluorescein–Ab conjugate. Results from other experiments involving EDC, the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulphonate (CMC), and EDC.HCl have suggested a new reaction mechanism for EDC coupling under basic aqueous conditions. In summary, a robust understanding of commercial QD-COOH surface chemistry and the variables involved in the materials’ efficient conjugation with a bioligand using carbidiimide has been obtained along with an optimized approach for Ab–QD conjugate production. A novel assay has been developed for bioassay of QD–Ab conjugates and a new mechanism for EDC coupling under basic aqueous conditions is proposed.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: carbodiimide-mediated coupling, coupling under aqueous conditions
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Environmental Sciences
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2016 11:18
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/7212

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