Do diatomaceous earths have potential as grain protectants for small-holder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Tanzania
Stathers, T.E., Riwa, W., Mvumi, B.M., Mosha, R., Kitandu, L., Mngara, K., Kaoneka, B. and Morris, M. (2008) Do diatomaceous earths have potential as grain protectants for small-holder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Tanzania. Crop Protection, 27 (1):7. pp. 44-70. ISSN 0261-2194 (doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2007.04.020)Full text not available from this repository.
Participatory on-farm field trials were set up over three storage seasons, from 2002 to 2005, in different agroecological zones of Tanzania to compare the efficacy of the enhanced diatomaceous earths (DEs) Protect-Its and Dryacides alone or combined with the pyrethroid permethrin. Other treatments included three commercially available synthetic chemical dilute dusts, containing 1.6% pirimiphos-methyl and 0.3% permethrin (Actellic Super and Stocal Super from different manufacturers) and 1% fenitrothion and 0.13% deltamethrin (Shumba Super); traditional protectants; and a locally available DE collected from Kagera in north-west Tanzania. Treatments were applied to maize and sorghum grain and dried beans. Insect pests are the main threat during storage, which in Tanzania includes the devastating larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus. All the grain protectants, except the traditional ones, kept damage incidence well below that of the untreated controls, and usually below 10% for periods of 40 weeks of storage. Exceptions occurred when grain was badly infested prior to treatment, in which case Actellic Super dust was more effective than the DEs. Very little difference in damage was observed between the DE treatments until 40 weeks of storage. In addition to the commercially available synthetic grain protectants, Protect-Its 0.25% w/w or Protect-Its 0.1% w/w plus permethrin at 2 mg/kg can be recommended to protect dry un-infested, winnowed maize and sorghum grain that is to be stored on-farm in sacks or woven granary baskets for periods of 4 months or more in Tanzania. Beans can be protected with lower application rates of Protect-Its 0.05% w/w or Dryacides 0.1% w/w. The study also demonstrated that Actellic Super dust obtained from an approved source and applied according to the manufacturer’s recommendations is effective in protecting stored maize, sorghum and beans for periods of at least 40 weeks—contrary to many of the suggestions that this product is no longer effective in Tanzania.
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||diatomaceous earths, food security, pest management, post-harvest, rural livelihoods, maize, sorghum, beans, prostephanus truncatus, African diatomaceous earths, combinations|
|Subjects:||S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)|
S Agriculture > SB Plant culture
|School / Department / Research Groups:||Natural Resources Institute|
Natural Resources Institute > Food & Markets
|Last Modified:||03 Apr 2013 16:24|
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