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Effects of protein–carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and resistance training outcomes: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

Effects of protein–carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and resistance training outcomes: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

Naclerio, Fernando ORCID: 0000-0001-7405-4894, Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko, Ashrafi, Nadia, Seijo, Marco, Nielsen, Birthe, Allgrove, Judith and Earnest, Conrad P. (2016) Effects of protein–carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and resistance training outcomes: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 117 (2). pp. 267-277. ISSN 1439-6319 (Print), 1439-6327 (Online) (doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3520-x)

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Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on resistance training outcomes, body composition, muscle thickness, blood indices of health and salivary human neutrophil peptides (HNP1-3), as reference of humoral immunity followed an 8-week resistance training program in college athletes.

Methods

Twenty-seven recreationally physically active males and females (n = 9 per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, or non-protein isoenergetic carbohydrate. Treatment consisted of ingesting 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day immediately post-workout or before breakfast on non-training days. Measurements were performed pre- and post-intervention on total load (kg) lifted at the first and last workout, body composition (via plethysmography) vastus medialis thickness (mm) (via ultrasonography), and blood indices of health. Salivary HNP1-3 were determined before and after performing the first and last workout.

Results

Salivary concentration and secretion rates of the HNP1-3 decreased in the beef condition only from pre-first-workout (1.90 ± 0.83 μg/mL; 2.95 ± 2.83 μg/min, respectively) to pre-last-workout (0.92 ± 0.63 μg/mL, p = 0.025, d = 1.03; 0.76 ± 0.74 μg/min, p = 0.049, d = 0.95), and post-last-workout (0.95 ± 0.60 μg/mL, p = 0.032, d = 1.00; 0.59 ± 0.52 μg/min, p = 0.027, d = 1.02). No other significant differences between groups were observed.

Conclusions

Supplementation with a carbohydrate–protein beverage may support resistance training outcomes in a comparable way as the ingestion of only carbohydrate. Furthermore, the ingestion of 20 g of hydrolyzed beef protein resulted in a decreased level and secretion rates of the HNP1-3 from baseline with no negative effect on blood indices of health.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: "This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made."
Uncontrolled Keywords: Immune status; Strength performance; Body composition; Muscle thickness; Blood indices of health
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Science and Medicine in Sport and Exercise
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Life & Sports Sciences
Last Modified: 14 Nov 2017 10:36
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: GREAT b
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/16147

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