# Numerical algorithms for modelling electrodeposition: Tracking the deposition front under forced convection from megasonic agitation

Hughes, Michael, Strussevich, Nadia, Bailey, Christopher, McManus, Kevin, Kaufmann, Jens, Flynn, David and Desmulliez, Marc P.Y.
(2009)
*Numerical algorithms for modelling electrodeposition: Tracking the deposition front under forced convection
from megasonic agitation.*
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 64 (3).
pp. 237-268.
ISSN 0271-2091 (Print), 1097-0363 (Online)
(doi:10.1002/fld.2140)

## Abstract

Electrodeposition is a widely used technique for the fabrication of high aspect ratio microstructures. In recent years, much research has been focused within this area aiming to understand the physics behind the filling of high aspect ratio vias and trenches on substrates and in particular how they can be made without the formation of voids in the deposited material. This paper reports on the fundamental work towards the advancement of numerical algorithms that can predict the electrodeposition process in micron scaled features. Two different numerical approaches have been developed, which capture the motion of the deposition interface and 2-D simulations are presented for both methods under two deposition regimes: those where surface kinetics is governed by Ohm’s law and the Butler–Volmer equation, respectively. In the last part of this paper the modelling of acoustic forces and their subsequent impact on the deposition profile through convection is examined.

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