Multiscale modeling of the onset of freckle formation during vacuum arc remelting
Yuan, L., Lee, Peter D., Djambazov, Georgi and Pericleous, Koulis A. (2009) Multiscale modeling of the onset of freckle formation during vacuum arc remelting. In: International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting - LMPC 2009. The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA, pp. 39-46. ISBN 978-0-87339-743-8Full text not available from this repository.
A multiscale model for the Vacuum Arc Remelting process (VAR) was developed to simulate dendritic microstructures during solidification and investigate the onset of freckle formation. On the macroscale, a 3D multi-physics model of VAR was used to study complex physical phenomena, including liquid metal flow with turbulence, heat transfer, and magnetohydrodynamics. The results showed that unsteady fluid flow in the liquid pool caused significant thermal perturbation at the solidification front. These results were coupled into a micromodel to simulate dendritic growth controlled by solute diffusion, including local remelting. The changes in Rayleigh number as the microstructure remelts was quantified to provide an indicator of when fluid flow channels (i.e. freckles) will initiate in the mushy zone. By examining the simulated microstructures, it was found that the Rayleigh number increased more than 300 times during remelting, which suggests that thermal perturbation could be responsible for the onset of freckle formation.
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