# Three-dimensional simulation of the influence of convection on dendritic solidification

Yuan, Lang, Lee, Peter D., Djambazov, Georgi and Pericleous, Koulis A.
(2010)
*Three-dimensional simulation of the influence of convection on dendritic solidification.*
In: Modeling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processes - XII (MCWASP XII).
John Wiley & Sons, Inc. / The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale, PA, USA, pp. 451-458.
ISBN 978-0-87339-742-1 (hbk)

## Abstract

Bulk and interdendritic flow during solidification alters the microstructure development, potentially leading to the formation of defects. In this paper, a 3D numerical model is presented for the simulation of dendritic growth in the presence of fluid flow in both liquid and semi-solid zones during solidification. The dendritic growth was solved by the combination of a stochastic nucleation approach with a finite difference solution of the solute diffusion equation and. a projection method solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. The technique was applied first to simulate the growth of a single dendrite in 2D and 3D in an isothermal environment with forced fluid flow. Significant differences were found in the evolution of dendritic morphology when comparing the 2D and 3D results. In 3D the upstream arm has a faster growth velocity due to easier flow around the perpendicular arms. This also promotes secondary arm formation on the upstream arm. The effect of fluid flow on columnar dendritic growth and micro-segregation in constrained solidification conditions is then simulated. For constrained growth, 2D simulations lead to even greater inaccuracies as compared to 3D.

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