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Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies

Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies

Vale, Glyn A., Hall, David R. ORCID: 0000-0002-7887-466X, Chamisa, Andrew and Torr, Stephen J. (2012) Towards an early warning system for Rhodesian sleeping sickness in savannah areas: man-like traps for tsetse flies. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 6 (12):e1978. ISSN 1935-2735 (doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001978)

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Abstract

Background: In the savannahs of East and Southern Africa, tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit Trypanosoma brucei
rhodesiense which causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness, the zoonotic form of human African trypanosomiasis. The flies feed mainly on wild and domestic animals and are usually repelled by humans. However, this innate aversion to humans can be undermined by environmental stresses on tsetse populations, so increasing disease risk. To monitor changes in risk, we need traps designed specifically to quantify the responsiveness of savannah tsetse to humans, but the traps currently available are designed to simulate other hosts.
Methodology/Principal Findings: In Zimbabwe, two approaches were made towards developing a man-like trap for savannah tsetse: either modifying an ox-like trap or creating new designs. Tsetse catches from a standard ox-like trap used
with and without artificial ox odor were reduced by two men standing nearby, by an average of 34% for Glossina morsitans
morsitans and 56% for G. pallidipes, thus giving catches more like those made by hand-nets from men. Sampling by
electrocuting devices suggested that the men stopped flies arriving near the trap and discouraged trap-entering responses. Most of human repellence was olfactory, as evidenced by the reduction in catches when the trap was used with the odor of hidden men. Geranyl acetone, known to occur in human odor, and dispensed at 0.2 mg/h, was about as repellent as human odor but not as powerfully repellent as wood smoke. New traps looking and smelling like men gave catches like those from men.
Conclusion/Significance: Catches from the completely new man-like traps seem too small to give reliable indices of human repellence. Better indications would be provided by comparing the catches of an ox-like trap either with or without artificial human odor. The chemistry and practical applications of the repellence of human odor and smoke deserve further study.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: [1] Citation: Vale GA, Hall DR, Chamisa A, Torr SJ (2012) Towards an Early Warning System for Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness in Savannah Areas: Man-Like Traps for Tsetse Flies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(12): e1978. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001978. [2] Copyright: � 2012 Vale et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: acetones, African trypanosomiasis, cotton, diagnostic medicine, glossina, smoking related disorders, trypanosomiasis, tsetse fly
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2016 10:36
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/9879

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