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Individual differences in cognitive control: The role of psychoticism and working memory in set-shifting

Individual differences in cognitive control: The role of psychoticism and working memory in set-shifting

Smillie, Luke D., Cooper, Andrew J., Tharp, Ian J. ORCID: 0000-0001-8903-8483 and Pelling, Emma L. (2009) Individual differences in cognitive control: The role of psychoticism and working memory in set-shifting. British Journal of Psychology, 100 (4). pp. 629-643. ISSN 0007-1269 (Print), 2044-8295 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1348/000712608X382094)

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Abstract

Set-shifting refers to a process of cognitive control which is shown through flexible behavioural adaptation to changes in task parameters or demands, such as the switching of an explicit rule (extra-dimensional rule shifting) or the reversal of a reinforcement-contingency (reversal-learning). Set-shifting deficits are widely documented in specific neuropsychological disorders, but seldom investigated in relation to normally-occurring individual differences. In a sample of healthy adults (N=78, 28% male), we demonstrate that Working Memory and trait Psychoticism have independent involvement in extra-dimensional rule shifting as measured using an analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Only Psychoticism, however, was involved in reversal-learning, as assessed using a recent modification of the Iowa Gambling Task. Individual differences in extra-dimensional rule shifting were explained in terms of rule abstraction speed, while individual differences in reversal-learning were explained in terms of response perseveration. These results clarify component processes in different forms of set-shifting, and highlight the role of individual differences, especially personality, in cognitive control.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: [1] Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010. Issue published online: 24 DEC 2010. Published in British Journal of Psychology, Volume 100, Issue 4, November 2009.
Uncontrolled Keywords: psychoticism, set-shifting, cognitive control, working memory
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Pre-2014 Departments: School of Health & Social Care
School of Health & Social Care > Department of Psychology & Counselling
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 20 May 2019 07:14
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/6722

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