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Forensic mental health in Europe: some key figures

Forensic mental health in Europe: some key figures

Tomlin, Jack ORCID: 0000-0002-7610-7918, Lega, Ilaria, Braun, Peter, Kennedy, Harry G., Tort Herrando, Vicente, Barroso, Ricardo, Castelletti, Luca, Mirabella, Fiorino, Scarpa, Franco and Völlm, Birgit (2021) Forensic mental health in Europe: some key figures. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 56. pp. 109-117. ISSN 0933-7954 (Print), 1433-9285 (Online) (doi:

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Purpose. While the number of forensic beds and the duration of psychiatric forensic psychiatric treatment have increased in several European Union (EU) states, this is not observed in others. Patient demographics, average lengths of stay and legal frameworks also differ substantially. The lack of basic epidemiological information on forensic patients and of shared indicators on forensic care within Europe is an obstacle to comparative research. The reasons for such variation are not well understood. Methods. Experts from seventeen EU states submitted data on forensic bed prevalence rates, gender distributions and average length of stay in forensic in-patient facilities. Average length of stay and bed prevalence rates were examined for associations with country-level variables including Gross Domestic Product (GDP), expenditure on healthcare, prison population, general psychiatric bed prevalence rates and democracy index scores. Results. The data demonstrated substantial differences between states. Average length of stay was approximately ten times greater in the Netherlands than Slovenia. In England and Wales, 18% of patients were female compared to 5% in Slovenia. There was a 17-fold difference in forensic bed rates per 100,000 between the Netherlands and Spain. Exploratory analyses suggested average length of stay was associated with GDP, expenditure on healthcare and democracy index scores. Conclusion. The data presented in this study represent the most recent overview of key epidemiological data in forensic services across seventeen EU states. However, systematically collected epidemiological data of good quality remain elusive in forensic psychiatry. States need to develop common definitions and recording practices and contribute to a publicly available database of such epidemiological indicators.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: forensic mental health; prevalence; beds; deinstitutionalization; Europe
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA1001 Forensic Medicine. Medical jurisprudence. Legal medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Liberal Arts & Sciences
Faculty of Liberal Arts & Sciences > School of Law & Criminology (LAC)
Last Modified: 05 Apr 2022 15:42

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