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Examining Heterogeneity of Food Fortification and Biofortification Business Models: Emerging Evidence for a Typology

Examining Heterogeneity of Food Fortification and Biofortification Business Models: Emerging Evidence for a Typology

Lalani, Baqir ORCID: 0000-0001-8287-3283, Hassan, Rania and Bennett, Ben (2021) Examining Heterogeneity of Food Fortification and Biofortification Business Models: Emerging Evidence for a Typology. Nutrients, 13 (4):1233. ISSN 2072-6643 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041233)

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Abstract

Efforts to address Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) in lower-and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been gaining pace in recent years. Commodities such as staple foods (e.g., cereals, roots, and tubers) and condiments (e.g., salt) have been targeted as ‘vehicles’ for fortification and biofortification through numerous projects and initiatives. To date, there have been mixed experiences with delivery and coverage with very little documented on the range of business models applied in different geographies, business conditions and polities and this makes classification and measurement of success and failure difficult. This research aims to address this gap in knowledge through proposing a typology that clarifies similarities (internal heterogeneity) and differences (external heterogeneity) between models and that can allow all types to be defined by the combination of attributes. Building on a comprehensive literature review; NVivo was used to code initiatives from 34 key references (955 cases in total) which have been grouped into 17 categories. Using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) we find evidence of four business model groupings that typify fortification initiatives: (1) Large-scale private, unregulated, (2) Mixed-Scale, private, unregulated (3) Large-scale, public-private, regulated; and (4) Large-scale, private, regulated. We characterise these four groups with country examples and suggest that this typology can help the discourse around viability of food fortification initiatives

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords: fortification; biofortification; business models; typologies; nonmetric dimensional scaling (NMDS)
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Food & Markets Department
Last Modified: 09 Apr 2021 20:56
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
Selected for REF2021: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/32123

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