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Kinetics of ion release from a conventional glass-ionomer cement

Kinetics of ion release from a conventional glass-ionomer cement

Nicholson, John W., Coleman, Nichola J. and Sidhu, Sharanbir K. (2021) Kinetics of ion release from a conventional glass-ionomer cement. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 32 (30). ISSN 0957-4530 (Print), 1573-4838 (Online) (doi:

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Release kinetics for sodium, silicon, aluminium, calcium and phosphorus from conventional glass-ionomer dental cement has been studied in neutral and acid conditions. Specimens (6 mm height × 4 mm diameter) were made from AquaCem (Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany), 6 per experiment. They were matured (37 °C, 1 h), then placed in 5 cm3 storage solution at 20–22 °C. In the first experiment, deionised water, changed daily for 28 days, was used. In the second, deionised water, changed monthlyfor 21 months, was used. In the third, lactic acid (20 mmol dm−3, pH: 2.7 ± 0.1), changed monthly for 21 months was used. After storage each solution was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results showed that in neutral conditions, no calcium was released, but in acid, significant amounts were released. The other elements (Na, Al, Si and P) were released in neutral as well as acid conditions, with greater amounts in acid. More frequent changes of water gave greater release. In neutral conditions, release over 21 months followed the equation: [E]c = [E]1t/(t + t½) + β√t ([E] c is the cumulative release of the element). In acid conditions, this became: [E]c = [E]1t/(t + t½) + αt. Hence release of all elements was shown to occur in two steps, a rapid initial one (half-life: 12–18 h) and a longer second one. In neutral conditions, the longer step involves diffusion; in acid it involves erosion. These patterns influence the material’s bioactivity.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: Glass-ionomer cement, ion-release, kinetics
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > School of Science (SCI)
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2021 18:07

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