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Contactless ultrasonic treatment in direct chill casting

Contactless ultrasonic treatment in direct chill casting

Tonry, Catherine E. H. ORCID: 0000-0002-8214-0845 , Bojarevics, Valdis ORCID: 0000-0002-7326-7748 , Djambazov, Georgi ORCID: 0000-0001-8812-1269 and Pericleous, Tonry ORCID: 0000-0002-7426-9999 (2020) Contactless ultrasonic treatment in direct chill casting. JOM (The Member Journal of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society), 72 (11). pp. 4082-4091. ISSN 1047-4838 (Print), 1543-1851 (Online) (doi:

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Uniformity of composition and grain refinement are desirable traits in the direct chill (DC) casting of non-ferrous alloy ingots. Ultrasonic treatment (UST) is a proven method for achieving grain refinement, with uniformity of composition achieved with additional melt stirring. The immersed sonotrode technique has been employed for this purpose to treat alloys both within the launder prior to DC casting, and directly in the sump. In both cases mixing is weak, relying on buoyancy driven flow or in the latter case on acoustic streaming. In this work we consider an alternative electromagnetic (EM) technique used directly in the caster, inducing ultrasonic vibrations coupled to strong melt stirring. This ‘contactless sonotrode’ technique relies on a kilohertz frequency induction coil lowered towards the melt with the frequency tuned to reach acoustic resonance within the melt pool. The technique developed with a combination of numerical models and physical experiments has been successfully used in batch to refine the microstructure and degas aluminum in a crucible. In this work we extend the numerical model, coupling electromagnetics, fluid flow, gas cavitation, heat transfer and solidification to examine the feasibility of use in the DC process. Simulations show that a consistent resonant mode is obtainable within a vigorously mixed melt pool, with high pressure regions at the Blake threshold required for cavitation localized to the liquidus temperature. It is assumed extreme conditions in the mushy zone due to cavitation would promote dendrite fragmentation and that, coupled with strong stirring, would lead to fine equiaxed grains.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2020 The Author(s). Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Uncontrolled Keywords: ultrasonic cavitation, DC casting
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis (CNMPA)
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis (CNMPA) > Computational Science & Engineering Group (CSEG)
Faculty of Engineering & Science > School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences (CMS)
Last Modified: 23 May 2022 10:01

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