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A comparison of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by household socioeconomic status across seven INDEPTH network health and demographic surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa

A comparison of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by household socioeconomic status across seven INDEPTH network health and demographic surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa

Coates, Matthew M. ORCID: 0000-0002-8474-4992, Kamanda, Mamusu, Kintu, Alexander, Arikpo, Iwara ORCID: 0000-0001-8487-6461, Chauque, Alberto, Mengesha, Melkamu Merid ORCID: 0000-0003-4312-0136, Price, Alison J. ORCID: 0000-0002-3891-3337, Sifuna, Peter, Wamukoya, Marylene ORCID: 0000-0002-2900-9178, Sacoor, Charfudin N., Ogwang, Sheila, Assefa, Nega ORCID: 0000-0003-0341-2329, Crampin, Amelia C. ORCID: 0000-0002-1513-4330, Macete, Eusebio V., Kyobutungi, Catherine ORCID: 0000-0002-5344-5631, Meremikwu, Martin M., Otieno, Walter, Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Kafui ORCID: 0000-0002-8919-6518, Marx, Andrew, Byass, Peter ORCID: 0000-0001-5474-4361, Sankoh, Osman ORCID: 0000-0003-4405-9808 and Bukhman, Gene ORCID: 0000-0003-4500-7903 (2019) A comparison of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by household socioeconomic status across seven INDEPTH network health and demographic surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Health Action, 12 (1):1608013. ISSN 1654-9716 (Print), 1654-9880 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1608013)

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Abstract

Background:
Understanding socioeconomic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality can help inform prevention and treatment strategies.

Objectives:
To quantify cause-specific mortality rates by socioeconomic status across seven health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) in five countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Nigeria) in the INDEPTH Network in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods:
We linked demographic residence data with household survey data containing living standards and education information we used to create a poverty index. Person-years lived and deaths between 2003 and 2016 (periods varied by HDSS) were stratified in each HDSS by age, sex, year, and number of deprivations on the poverty index (0–8). Causes of death were assigned to each death using the InterVA-4 model based on responses to verbal autopsy questionnaires. We estimated rate ratios between socioeconomic groups (2–4 and 5–8 deprivations on our poverty index compared to 0–2 deprivations) for specific causes of death and calculated life expectancy for the deprivation groups.

Results:
Our pooled data contained almost 3.5 million person-years of observation and 25,038 deaths. All-cause mortality rates were higher among people in households with 5–8 deprivations on our poverty index compared to 0–2 deprivations, controlling for age, sex, and year (rate ratios ranged 1.42 to 2.06 across HDSS sites). The poorest group had consistently higher death rates in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions (rate ratios ranged 1.34–4.05) and for non-communicable diseases in several sites (1.14–1.93). The disparities in mortality between 5–8 deprivation groups and 0–2 deprivation groups led to lower life expectancy in the higher-deprivation groups by six years in all sites and more than 10 years in five sites.

Conclusions:
We show large disparities in mortality on the basis of socioeconomic status across seven HDSS in sub-Saharan Africa due to disparities in communicable disease mortality and from non-communicable diseases in some sites. Life expectancy gaps between socioeconomic groups within sites were similar to the gaps between high-income and lower-middle-income countries. Prevention and treatment efforts can benefit from understanding subpopulations facing higher mortality from specific conditions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: cause of death, verbal autopsy, non-communicable disease, life expectancy
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences
Faculty of Education, Health & Human Sciences > Department of Psychology, Social Work & Counselling
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2021 02:41
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
Selected for REF2021: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/29473

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