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Sand fly synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone co-located with insecticide reduces the incidence of infection in the canine reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis: a stratified cluster randomised trial

Sand fly synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone co-located with insecticide reduces the incidence of infection in the canine reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis: a stratified cluster randomised trial

Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio, Courtenay, Orin ORCID: 0000-0002-0188-6929, Dilger, Erin, Calvo-Bado, Leo A., Kravar-Garde, Lidija ORCID: 0000-0002-8909-1580, Carter, Vicky, Bell, Melissa J., Alves, Graziella B. ORCID: 0000-0003-1868-4888, Goncalves, Raquel, Makhdoomi, Muhammad M., González, Mikel A., Nunes, Caris M., Bray, Daniel ORCID: 0000-0001-9914-2356, Brazil, Reginaldo P. and Hamilton, James G. C. ORCID: 0000-0001-9196-8516 (2019) Sand fly synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone co-located with insecticide reduces the incidence of infection in the canine reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis: a stratified cluster randomised trial. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13 (10). e0007767. ISSN 1935-2735 (doi:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007767)

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Abstract

The predominant sand fly vector of the intracellular parasite Leishmania infantum, that causes human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas, is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Dogs are the proven reservoir. Vector control tools to reduce transmission suited to this predominantly exophilic vector are lacking. Insecticide-impregnated dog collars protect dogs against infectious bites from sand fly vectors, and result in reductions of new infections in both dogs and humans. However, collars are costly for endemic communities, and alternative approaches are needed. Recently the bulk synthesised sex-aggregation pheromone of male Lu. longipalpis was shown to attract large numbers of conspecific females to lethal pyrethroid insecticides, indicating the potential for use in a vector control application. This study, conducted in Brazil, evaluated the efficacy of this novel lure-and-kill approach to reduce seroconversion and infection incidence with L. infantum in the canine reservoir, in addition to measuring its impact on household abundance of Lu. longipalpis. Deployed in 14 stratified clusters, the outcomes were compared to those attributed to insecticide impregnated collars fitted to dogs in another 14 clusters; each intervention was compared to 14 clusters that received placebo treatments. The beneficial effects of the lure-and-kill method were most noticeable on confirmed infection incidence and clinical parasite loads, and in reducing sand fly abundance. The overall effect of the two interventions were not statistically dissimilar, though the confidence intervals were broad. We conclude that the novel low-cost lure-and-kill approach should be added to the vector control toolbox against visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: dogs, pheromones, sand flies, parasitic diseases, insecticides, chickens, leishmania infantum, Brazil
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
R Medicine > RB Pathology
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2019 09:38
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/25971

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