Skip navigation

Which choice of delivery model(s) works best to deliver fortified foods?

Which choice of delivery model(s) works best to deliver fortified foods?

Lalani, Baqir ORCID: 0000-0001-8287-3283, Bechoff, Aurelie ORCID: 0000-0001-8141-4448 and Bennett, Ben (2019) Which choice of delivery model(s) works best to deliver fortified foods? Nutrients, 11 (7):1594. ISSN 2072-6643 (Print), 2072-6643 (Online) (doi:

PDF (Publisher's PDF - Open Access)
24787 LALANI_Choice_Delivery_Models_Fortified_Foods_(OA)_2019.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) occur as a result of insufficient intake of minerals and vitamins that are critical for body growth, physical/mental development, and activity. These deficiencies are particularly prevalent in lower-and middle-income countries (LMICs), falling disproportionately on the poorest and most vulnerable segments of the society. Dietary diversity is considered the most effective method in reducing this deficiency but is often a major constraint as most foods rich in micronutrients are also expensive and thereby inaccessible to poorer members of society. In recent years, affordable commodities such as staple foods (e.g., cereals, roots, and tubers) and condiments (e.g., salt and oil) have been targeted as “vehicles” for fortification and biofortification. Despite efforts by many countries to support such initiatives, there have been mixed experiences with delivery and coverage. An important but little understood driver of success and failure for food fortification has been the range of business models and approaches adopted to promote uptake. This review examines the different models used in the delivery of fortified food including complementary foods and biofortified crops. Using a keyword search and pearl growing techniques, the review located 11,897 texts of which 106 were considered relevant. Evidence was found of a range of business forms and models that attempt to optimise uptake, use, and impact of food fortification which are specific to the ‘food vehicle’ and environment. We characterise the current business models and business parameters that drive successful food fortification and we propose an initial structure for understanding different fortification business cases that will offer assistance to future designers and implementors of food fortification programmes.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Fortification: Traditional and New Strategies to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies *** © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fortification, biofortification, complementary food, business model, cost effectiveness, micronutrient deficiency
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Food & Markets Department
Last Modified: 01 May 2020 09:34

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics