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Knock-down of gossypol-inducing cytochrome P450 genes reduced deltamethrin sensitivity in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

Knock-down of gossypol-inducing cytochrome P450 genes reduced deltamethrin sensitivity in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

Hafeez, Muhammad, Liu, Sisi, Jan, Saad, Shi, Le, Fernandez-Grandon, G. Mandela ORCID: 0000-0002-2993-390X, Gulzar, Asim, Ali, Bahar, Rehman, Muzammal and Wang, Mo (2019) Knock-down of gossypol-inducing cytochrome P450 genes reduced deltamethrin sensitivity in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20 (9):2248. ISSN 1661-6596 (Print), 1422-0067 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092248)

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Abstract

Plants employ an intricate and dynamic defense system that includes physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms to counteract the effects of herbivorous attacks. Besides their tolerance to phytotoxins, beet armyworm has quickly developed resistance to deltamethrin; a widely used pyrethroid insecticide in cotton fields. The lethal concentration (LC50) required to kill 50% of the population of deltamethrin to gossypol-fed Spodoptera exigua larvae was 2.34-fold higher than the control group, suggesting a reduced sensitivity as a consequence of the gossypol diet. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treatment was found to synergize with deltamethrin in gossypol-fed S. exigua larvae. To counteract these defensive plant secondary metabolites, beet armyworm elevates their production of detoxification enzymes, including cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Gossypol-fed beet armyworm larvae showed higher 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activities and exhibited enhanced tolerance to deltamethrin after 48 and 72 h when compared to the control. Moreover, gossypol pretreated S. exigua larvae showed faster weight gain than the control group after transferring to a deltamethrin-supplemented diet. Meanwhile, gossypol-induced P450s exhibited high divergence in the expression level of two P450 genes: CYP6AB14 and CYP9A98 in the midgut and fat bodies contributed to beet armyworm tolerance to deltamethrin. Knocking down of CYP6AB14 and CYP9A98, via dsRNA in a controlled diet, rendered the larvae more sensitive to the insecticide. These data demonstrate that generalist insects can exploit secondary metabolites from host plants to enhance their defense systems against other toxic chemicals. Impairing this defense pathway by RNAi holds a potential to eliminate the pest’s tolerance to insecticides and, therefore, reduce the required dosages of agrochemicals in pest control.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords: gene expression, beet armyworm, deltamethrin, gossypol, pest control, resistance
Subjects: S Agriculture > SB Plant culture
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Chemical Ecology Research Group
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2019 14:00
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: GREAT 2
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/23793

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