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Development and functional characterization of composite freeze dried wafers for potential delivery of low dose aspirin for elderly people with dysphagia.

Development and functional characterization of composite freeze dried wafers for potential delivery of low dose aspirin for elderly people with dysphagia.

Farias, Smirna and Boateng, Joshua S. ORCID: 0000-0002-6310-729X (2018) Development and functional characterization of composite freeze dried wafers for potential delivery of low dose aspirin for elderly people with dysphagia. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 553 (1-2). pp. 65-83. ISSN 0378-5173 (doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.10.025)

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Abstract

The impact of demographic ageing is likely to be of major significance in the coming decades due to low birth rates and higher life expectancy. Older people generally require more prescribed medicines due to the presence of multiple conditions such as dysphagia which can make swallowing medicines challenging. This study involves the development, characterization and optimization of composite wafers for potential oral and buccal delivery of low dose aspirin to prevent thrombosis in elderly patients with dysphagia. Blank (BLK) wafers (no loaded drug) were initially formulated by dissolving combinations of metolose (MET) with carrageenan (CAR) and MET with low molecular weight chitosan (CS) in different weight ratios in water, to identify optimum polymer combinations. However, drug loaded (DL) wafers were prepared using 45% v/v ethanol to help complete solubilization of the aspirin. The formulations were characterized using texture analyzer (hardness, mucoadhesion), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and swelling capacity. Wafers with higher total polymer concentration were more resistant to penetration (MET:CAR 1:1 samples B2, C2) and MET:CS 1:1 (sample E2) and MET:CS 3:1 (sample F2) and also depended on the ratios between the polymers used. From the characterization, samples C2, B2, E2 and F2 showed the most ideal characteristics. XRD showed that BLK wafers were amorphous, whilst the DL wafers were crystalline due to the presence of aspirin. SEM confirmed the presence of pores within the polymer matrix of the BLK wafers, whilst DL wafers showed a more compact polymeric matrix with aspirin dispersed over the surface. The DL wafers showed a good flexibility required for transportation and patient handling and showed higher swelling capacity and adhesion values with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) than with simulated saliva (SS). Drug dissolution studies showed that aspirin was rapidly released in the first 20 min and then continuously over 1 h. FTIR confirmed the interaction of aspirin with the polymers evidenced by peak shifts around 1750 cm−1 and the broad peak between 2500 and 3300 cm−1. Lyophilized CAR: CS 1:3 (sample DL13), MET:CS 1:3 (sample DL8) and MET:CAR 3:1 (sample DL1) wafers seem to be a very promising system for the administration of low dose aspirin for older patients with dysphagia.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aspirin; Low molecular weight chitosan; Dysphagia; Carrageenan; Geriatric patients; Metolose; Wafers
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Q Science > QD Chemistry
R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Environmental Sciences
Last Modified: 27 Oct 2018 21:01
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/21948

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