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Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome

Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome

Appels, Rudi, Eversole, Kellye, Feuillet, Catherine, Keller, Beat, Rogers, Jane, Stein, Nils, Pozniak, Curtis J., Stein, Nils, Choulet, Frédéric, Distelfeld, Assaf, Eversole, Kellye, Poland, Jesse, Rogers, Jane, Ronen, Gil, Sharpe, Andrew G., Pozniak, Curtis, Ronen, Gil, Stein, Nils, Barad, Omer, Baruch, Kobi, Choulet, Frédéric, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Mascher, Martin, Sharpe, Andrew G., Ben-Zvi, Gil, Josselin, Ambre-Aurore, Stein, Nils, Mascher, Martin, Himmelbach, Axel, Choulet, Frédéric, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Mascher, Martin, Rogers, Jane, Balfourier, François, Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan, Hayden, Matthew, Josselin, Ambre-Aurore, Koh, ChuShin, Muehlbauer, Gary, Pasam, Raj K., Paux, Etienne, Pozniak, Curtis J., Rigault, Philippe, Sharpe, Andrew G., Tibbits, Josquin, Tiwari, Vijay, Choulet, Frédéric, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Mascher, Martin, Josselin, Ambre-Aurore, Rogers, Jane, Spannagl, Manuel, Choulet, Frédéric, Lang, Daniel, Gundlach, Heidrun, Haberer, Georg, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Mayer, Klaus F. X., Ormanbekova, Danara, Paux, Etienne, Prade, Verena, Šimková, Hana, Wicker, Thomas, Choulet, Frédéric, Spannagl, Manuel, Swarbreck, David, Rimbert, Hélène, Felder, Marius, Guilhot, Nicolas, Gundlach, Heidrun, Haberer, Georg, Kaithakottil, Gemy, Keilwagen, Jens, Lang, Daniel, Leroy, Philippe, Lux, Thomas, Mayer, Klaus F. X., Twardziok, Sven, Venturini, Luca, Appels, Rudi, Rimbert, Hélène, Choulet, Frédéric, Juhász, Angéla, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Choulet, Frédéric, Spannagl, Manuel, Lang, Daniel, Abrouk, Michael, Haberer, Georg, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Mayer, Klaus F. X., Wicker, Thomas, Choulet, Frédéric, Wicker, Thomas, Gundlach, Heidrun, Lang, Daniel, Spannagl, Manuel, Lang, Daniel, Spannagl, Manuel, Appels, Rudi, Fischer, Iris, Uauy, Cristobal, Borrill, Philippa, Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H., Appels, Rudi, Arnaud, Dominique, Chalabi, Smahane, Chalhoub, Boulos, Choulet, Frédéric, Cory, Aron, Datla, Raju, Davey, Mark W., Hayden, Matthew, Jacobs, John, Lang, Daniel, Robinson, Stephen J., Spannagl, Manuel, Steuernagel, Burkhard, Tibbits, Josquin, Tiwari, Vijay, van Ex, Fred, Wulff, Brande B. H., Pozniak, Curtis J., Robinson, Stephen J., Sharpe, Andrew G., Cory, Aron, Benhamed, Moussa, Paux, Etienne, Bendahmane, Abdelhafid, Concia, Lorenzo, Latrasse, David, Rogers, Jane, Jacobs, John, Alaux, Michael, Appels, Rudi, Bartoš, Jan, Bellec, Arnaud, Berges, Hélène, Doležel, Jaroslav, Feuillet, Catherine, Frenkel, Zeev, Gill, Bikram, Korol, Abraham, Letellier, Thomas, Olsen, Odd-Arne, Šimková, Hana, Singh, Kuldeep, Valárik, Miroslav, van der Vossen, Edwin, Vautrin, Sonia, Weining, Song, Korol, Abraham, Frenkel, Zeev, Fahima, Tzion, Glikson, Vladimir, Raats, Dina, Rogers, Jane, Tiwari, Vijay, Gill, Bikram, Paux, Etienne, Poland, Jesse, Doležel, Jaroslav, Číhalíková, Jarmila, Šimková, Hana, Toegelová, Helena, Vrána, Jan, Sourdille, Pierre, Darrier, Benoit, Appels, Rudi, Spannagl, Manuel, Lang, Daniel, Fischer, Iris, Ormanbekova, Danara, Prade, Verena, Barabaschi, Delfina, Cattivelli, Luigi, Hernandez, Pilar, Galvez, Sergio, Budak, Hikmet, Steuernagel, Burkhard, Jones, Jonathan D. G., Witek, Kamil, Wulff, Brande B. H., Yu, Guotai, Small, Ian, Melonek, Joanna, Zhou, Ruonan, Juhász, Angéla, Belova, Tatiana, Appels, Rudi, Olsen, Odd-Arne, Kanyuka, Kostya, King, Robert, Nilsen, Kirby, Walkowiak, Sean, Pozniak, Curtis J., Cuthbert, Richard, Datla, Raju, Knox, Ron, Wiebe, Krysta, Xiang, Daoquan, Rohde, Antje, Golds, Timothy, Doležel, Jaroslav, Čížková, Jana, Tibbits, Josquin, Budak, Hikmet, Akpinar, Bala Ani, Biyiklioglu, Sezgi, Muehlbauer, Gary, Poland, Jesse, Gao, Liangliang, Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan, N’Daiye, Amidou, Doležel, Jaroslav, Šimková, Hana, Číhalíková, Jarmila, Kubaláková, Marie, Šafář, Jan, Vrána, Jan, Berges, Hélène, Bellec, Arnaud, Vautrin, Sonia, Alaux, Michael, Alfama, Françoise, Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise, Flores, Raphael, Guerche, Claire, Letellier, Thomas, Loaec, Mikaël, Quesneville, Hadi, Pozniak, Curtis J., Sharpe, Andrew G., Walkowiak, Sean, Budak, Hikmet, Condie, Janet, Ens, Jennifer, Koh, ChuShin, Maclachlan, Ron, Tan, Yifang, Wicker, Thomas, Choulet, Frédéric, Paux, Etienne, Alberti, Adriana, Aury, Jean-Marc, Balfourier, François, Barbe, Valérie, Couloux, Arnaud, Cruaud, Corinne, Labadie, Karine, Mangenot, Sophie, Wincker, Patrick, Gill, Bikram, Kaur, Gaganpreet, Luo, Mingcheng, Sehgal, Sunish, Singh, Kuldeep, Chhuneja, Parveen, Gupta, Om Prakash, Jindal, Suruchi, Kaur, Parampreet, Malik, Palvi, Sharma, Priti, Yadav, Bharat, Singh, Nagendra K., Khurana, JitendraP., Chaudhary, Chanderkant, Khurana, Paramjit, Kumar, Vinod, Mahato, Ajay, Mathur, Saloni, Sevanthi, Amitha, Sharma, Naveen, Tomar, Ram Sewak, Rogers, Jane, Jacobs, John, Alaux, Michael, Bellec, Arnaud, Berges, Hélène, Doležel, Jaroslav, Feuillet, Catherine, Frenkel, Zeev, Gill, Bikram, Korol, Abraham, van der Vossen, Edwin, Vautrin, Sonia, Gill, Bikram, Kaur, Gaganpreet, Luo, Mingcheng, Sehgal, Sunish, Bartoš, Jan, Holušová, Kateřina, Plíhal, Ondřej, Clark, Matthew D., Heavens, Darren, Kettleborough, George, Wright, Jon, Valárik, Miroslav, Abrouk, Michael, Balcárková, Barbora, Holušová, Kateřina, Hu, Yuqin, Luo, Mingcheng, Salina, Elena, Ravin, Nikolai, Skryabin, Konstantin, Beletsky, Alexey, Kadnikov, Vitaly, Mardanov, Andrey, Nesterov, Michail, Rakitin, Andrey, Sergeeva, Ekaterina, Handa, Hirokazu, Kanamori, Hiroyuki, Katagiri, Satoshi, Kobayashi, Fuminori, Nasuda, Shuhei, Tanaka, Tsuyoshi, Wu, Jianzhong, Appels, Rudi, Hayden, Matthew, Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel, Rigault, Philippe, Tibbits, Josquin, Olsen, Odd-Arne, Belova, Tatiana, Cattonaro, Federica, Jiumeng, Min, Kugler, Karl, Mayer, Klaus F. X., Pfeifer, Matthias, Sandve, Simen, Xun, Xu, Zhan, Bujie, Šimková, Hana, Abrouk, Michael, Batley, Jacqueline, Bayer, Philipp E., Edwards, David, Hayashi, Satomi, Toegelová, Helena, Tulpová, Zuzana, Visendi, Paul, Weining, Song, Cui, Licao, Du, Xianghong, Feng, Kewei, Nie, Xiaojun, Tong, Wei, Wang, Le, Borrill, Philippa, Gundlach, Heidrun, Galvez, Sergio, Kaithakottil, Gemy, Lang, Daniel, Lux, Thomas, Mascher, Martin, Ormanbekova, Danara, Prade, Verena, Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H., Spannagl, Manuel, Stein, Nils, Uauy, Cristobal, Venturini, Luca, Stein, Nils, Appels, Rudi, Eversole, Kellye, Rogers, Jane, Borrill, Philippa, Cattivelli, Luigi, Choulet, Frédéric, Hernandez, Pilar, Kanyuka, Kostya, Lang, Daniel, Mascher, Martin, Nilsen, Kirby, Paux, Etienne, Pozniak, Curtis J., Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H., Šimková, Hana, Small, Ian, Spannagl, Manuel, Swarbreck, David and Uauy, Cristobal (2018) Shifting the limits in wheat research and breeding using a fully annotated reference genome. Science, 361 (6403):eaar7191. ISSN 0036-8075 (Print), 1095-9203 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar7191)

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Abstract

Introduction:
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely cultivated crop on Earth, contributing about a fifth of the total calories consumed by humans. Consequently, wheat yields and production affect the global economy, and failed harvests can lead to social unrest. Breeders continuously strive to develop improved varieties by fine-tuning genetically complex yield and end-use quality parameters while maintaining stable yields and adapting the crop to regionally specific biotic and abiotic stresses.

Rationale:
Breeding efforts are limited by insufficient knowledge and understanding of wheat biology and the molecular basis of central agronomic traits. To meet the demands of human population growth, there is an urgent need for wheat research and breeding to accelerate genetic gain as well as to increase and protect wheat yield and quality traits. In other plant and animal species, access to a fully annotated and ordered genome sequence, including regulatory sequences and genome-diversity information, has promoted the development of systematic and more time-efficient approaches for the selection and understanding of important traits. Wheat has lagged behind, primarily owing to the challenges of assembling a genome that is more than five times as large as the human genome, polyploid, and complex, containing more than 85% repetitive DNA. To provide a foundation for improvement through molecular breeding, in 2005, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium set out to deliver a high-quality annotated reference genome sequence of bread wheat.

Results:
An annotated reference sequence representing the hexaploid bread wheat genome in the form of 21 chromosome-like sequence assemblies has now been delivered, giving access to 107,891 high-confidence genes, including their genomic context of regulatory sequences. This assembly enabled the discovery of tissue- and developmental stage–related gene coexpression networks using a transcriptome atlas representing all stages of wheat development. The dynamics of change in complex gene families involved in environmental adaptation and end-use quality were revealed at subgenome resolution and contextualized to known agronomic single-gene or quantitative trait loci. Aspects of the future value of the annotated assembly for molecular breeding and research were exemplarily illustrated by resolving the genetic basis of a quantitative trait locus conferring resistance to abiotic stress and insect damage as well as by serving as the basis for genome editing of the flowering-time trait.

Conclusion:
This annotated reference sequence of wheat is a resource that can now drive disruptive innovation in wheat improvement, as this community resource establishes the foundation for accelerating wheat research and application through improved understanding of wheat biology and genomics-assisted breeding. Importantly, the bioinformatics capacity developed for model-organism genomes will facilitate a better understanding of the wheat genome as a result of the high-quality chromosome-based genome assembly. By necessity, breeders work with the genome at the whole chromosome level, as each new cross involves the modification of genome-wide gene networks that control the expression of complex traits such as yield. With the annotated and ordered reference genome sequence in place, researchers and breeders can now easily access sequence-level information to precisely define the necessary changes in the genomes for breeding programs. This will be realized through the implementation of new DNA marker platforms and targeted breeding technologies, including genome editing.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Wheat, wheat genome sequence, wheat yields and production
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Last Modified: 18 Feb 2019 01:38
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/21820

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