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Cluster randomised trial and development of a sandfly sex pheromone lure to reduce Leishmania infantum infection

Cluster randomised trial and development of a sandfly sex pheromone lure to reduce Leishmania infantum infection

Courtenay, O., Dilger, E., Carter, V., Bray, D., Bell, M., Gonzalez de Heredia, M., Borges-Alves, G., Nunes, C., Brazil, R. and Hamilton, G. (2017) Cluster randomised trial and development of a sandfly sex pheromone lure to reduce Leishmania infantum infection. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 22 (S1). p. 66. ISSN 1360-2276 (Print), 1365-3156 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12978)

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Abstract

Introduction:
Vector control tools are needed to combat leishmaniasis. A semi-synthetic version of a Lutzomyia longipalpis aggregation/sex pheromone (9-methlygermacrene-B) has been developed, and shown efficacy to attract sandflies in the lab and to chicken sheds in the field. Here, we present results from a cluster-randomised trial performed in Brazil where we test the efficacy of the pheromone deployed with insecticide, a novel lure-and-kill intervention, to reduce leishmaniasis transmission to the canine reservoir.

Aim:
Investigate the efficacy of sandfly sex pheromone baited + insecticide treated chicken roosts to reduce transmission of Leishmania infantum among the reservoir population (dogs).

Methods:
We conducted a cluster-randomised trial across 42 communities in Brazil. Pheromone lures plus insecticide were applied in 14 communities, and outcomes compared to that of 28 other communities that received either a placebo (sham lure + insecticide) or deltamethrin-impregnated collars fitted to dogs. We quantify the primary intervention effects by comparison of the number of uninfected dogs that seroconverted in each arm over the course of the 2-year trial.

Results:
A reduction in canine incidence is attributed to the pheromone + insecticide intervention, which is consistent across the levels of hierarchical analysis, though the errors are broad. The performance of the pheromone followed similar patterns as the collar arm which significantly reduced seroconversion incidence.

Conclusion:
These data represent the first trial of a synthetic vector pheromone applied in public health control, and the first cluster-randomised trial of dog collars in Brazil. Both methods show potential for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas; developments of the pheromone lure-and-kill strategy are underway.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sand flies, disease
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Chemical Ecology Research Group
Last Modified: 03 Sep 2018 09:27
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/20275

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