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Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa

Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa

Saito, K., Azoma, K. and Rodenburg, J. ORCID: 0000-0001-9059-9253 (2010) Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa. Field Crops Research, 116 (3). pp. 308-317. ISSN 0378-4290 (doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.01.008)

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Abstract

Weeds are a major constraint to rice (Oryza spp.) production in West Africa. Superior weed competitive rice genotypes may reduce weed pressure and improve rice productivity. Two upland and two lowland experiments were conducted in southern Benin to examine genotypic variations in weed-suppressive ability and grain yield under weedy conditions, and to identify plant characteristics that could be used as selection criteria for improved weed competitiveness. A total of 19 genotypes, including Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima genotypes and interspecific hybrids developed from crossing O. sativa and O. glaberrima, were grown under weed-free and weedy conditions in an upland with supplemental irrigation and in a flooded lowland. In weedy plots, hand weeding was done once or not at all. Mean relative yield loss across all genotypes due to weed competition ranged from almost 0% to 61%. Large genotypic variations in weed biomass and grain yield under weedy conditions were found. Visual growth vigor at 42 and 63 days after sowing (DAS) under weed-free conditions significantly correlated with weed biomass at maturity in both upland and lowland experiments (R2 = 0.26–0.48). Where weed pressure was low to moderate, with mean relative yield loss less than 23%, the multiple regression models using grain yield and plant height at maturity or only grain yield measured under weed-free conditions as independent variables could explain 66–88% of the genotypic variation in grain yield under weedy conditions. At higher weed pressure (mean relative yield loss: 61%), as observed in one of the upland experiments, biomass accumulation of rice at 42 days after sowing was associated with higher grain yield under weedy conditions. Biomass accumulation also significantly correlated with visual growth vigor at the same sampling dates. Therefore, we conclude that grain yield, plant height at maturity and visual growth vigor at 42–63 DAS under weed-free conditions appear to be useful selection criteria for developing superior weed competitive rice genotypes.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Interspecific hybrid, Oryza sativa, Oryza glaberrima, Growth vigor, Screening, Selection criteria, Weed-suppressive ability, Africa
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Ecosystem Services Research Group
Last Modified: 18 Feb 2019 15:49
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/19062

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