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Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: Phase 2 Final Report

Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: Phase 2 Final Report

Galea, E. R. ORCID: 0000-0002-0001-6665, Cooney, D. P. ORCID: 0000-0002-2341-0315, Xie, H. ORCID: 0000-0003-1019-2168 and Sharp, G. G. (2016) Impact of hostile vehicle mitigation measures (bollards) on pedestrian crowd movement: Phase 2 Final Report. [Working Paper]

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This work has been conducted by the Fire Safety Engineering Group (FSEG) of the University of Greenwich (UoG) under contract to the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI). This document represents the final report for the second series of trials conducted by FSEG on behalf of the CPNI. The overall aim of this project was to design, conduct and analyse a series of pedestrian flow trials to explore the impact of Hostile Vehicle Mitigation Measures (i.e. a Bollard Array, BA) upon pedestrian flows of simulated evacuation conditions. This report describes the performance of the second trial campaign and the subsequent analysis of the data produced.

FSEG, in consultation with CPNI, designed a series of trials in order to examine the impact that the presence of a bollard array (BA) might have upon an established pedestrian flow. The trials were conducted in two campaigns, the first in 2013 and the second in 2014. The trials were specifically designed to investigate the impact of several key parameters on the exit flow. Within the first trial campaign the following parameters were investigated: population density, BA position (large stand-off distances), a single bollard placed in the centre of the exit and the presence of a cross-flow. Within the second trial campaign these were: exit width, BA position (small stand-off distances) and the presence of luggage.

As these effects were expected to be dependent on population density, two initial population densities were examined in the first trial campaign, 3 p/m2 and 4 p/m2. These conditions reflected the maximum engineering design densities and were deemed representative of the conditions typically experienced by station users during egress at peak periods. The results from the first trial campaign suggested that at low population densities the impact of the BA was less significant. Thus the second trial campaign, reported here, concentrated on the higher crowd density of 4 p/m2.

The second trial campaign, consisting of three trial series was conducted over a single weekend in March 2014 (29 and 30 March). These trials were conducted, as with the first trial campaign, on University of Greenwich grounds, in the Queen Anne Courtyard. On Day 1 24 trials were conducted, 9 in Trial Series 1 (TS1) and 15 in TS2 while on Day 2, 21 trials were conducted in TS3. Up to 192 people participated in the TS1 and TS2 trials which began at 09:00 and were completed by around 15:50. Up to 249 people participated in the TS3 trials which began at 09:00 and were completed at around 14:40.

TS1 was intended to further investigate the relationship between the proximity of the BA and the exit and the flows generated. While large stand-off distances (3m and 6m) were explored in the first trial campaign, the second trial campaign investigated small stand-off distances, in particular between 0m and 3m from the exit. Thus the 2.4m exit width, with 1m, 1.5m and 2m stand-off distances were investigated.

TS2 was intended to examine the impact of encumbrance upon the egress flow produced given the presence of the BA at 0m. These trials used the 2.4m wide exit. Participants were provided with a range of encumbrance including hand bags, brief cases, small roller bags, large roller bags, push chairs and bicycles. Three levels of encumbrance were investigated; one in which 0% of the population was encumbered and ones in which 40% and 60% of the population were encumbered.

TS3 was intended to examine the relationship between exit width, BA stand-off distance and the flow generated by varying the stand-off distance and exit widths. Two exit widths were considered, 3.5m and 4.5m and three stand-off distances were investigated, 1m, 2m and 3m.

In total 45 individual trials involving 441 participants were conducted over two days. Each participant was compensated £45 for their day long involvement in the trials. The Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) was responsible for setting up the BA configuration required for each of the series of trials. On each trial day there were 12 FSEG staff members, 2 TRL staff members and 1 St. Johns first aider involved. The trials were recorded for later analysis by five video cameras at carefully selected positions.

The findings from the trials reflect the complexity of the impact of the BA upon performance.

Item Type: Working Paper
Additional Information: The reports were commissioned by the Department for Transport and Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure. Research was completed by the Fire Safety Engineering Group of the University of Greenwich and submitted on 19 October 2014. Declassified and published in the public domain on 15 November 2016.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pedestrian flow trials; Hostile vehicle mitigation measures; Pedestrian flows of simulated evacuation conditions
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis (CNMPA) > Fire Safety Engineering Group (FSEG)
Faculty of Engineering & Science > School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences (CMS)
Faculty of Engineering & Science
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2022 13:07

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