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Development and optimisation of a sex pheromone lure for monitoring populations of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata

Development and optimisation of a sex pheromone lure for monitoring populations of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata

Rowley, Charlotte, Pope, Tom W., Cherrill, Andrew, Leather, Simon R., Fernandez-Grandon, G. Mandela and Hall, David R. ORCID: 0000-0002-7887-466X (2017) Development and optimisation of a sex pheromone lure for monitoring populations of saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 163 (1). pp. 82-92. ISSN 0013-8703 (Print), 1570-7458 (Online) (doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12560)

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Abstract

Saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a sporadic pest of cereals in Northern and Central Europe and is of increasing importance in the UK. Recently the major component of the sex pheromone produced by adult female H. marginata was reported to be 2-nonyl butyrate. The importance of absolute configuration on attractiveness, the effects on trap catches of the addition of minor pheromone components, dispenser type, and pheromone loading are described in the development of an optimised pheromone lure with which to trap H. marginata males. In analyses of volatiles collected from virgin female H. marginata by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to electroantennographic recording (EAG) from the antenna of a male H. marginata, two EAG responses were observed. Analyses by coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS) indicated these were due to 2-nonyl butyrate and a trace amount (1%) of 2-heptyl butyrate. A similar trace amount of 2-nonanol was detected in GC-MS analyses but this compound did not elicit an EAG response when the synthetic compound was tested, whereas while the other two compounds did. These three compounds were not observed in collections of volatiles made from male H. marginata. The 2-nonyl butyrate was shown to be the (R)-enantiomer, and i. In field trapping tests (R)-2-nonyl butyrate was at least ten times10× more attractive to male H. marginata than the racemic compound, and while the (S)-enantiomer was unattractive. Addition of the potential minor components individually or together at the naturally -occurring ratios did not increase or reduce the attractiveness of the lure. Polyethylene vials and rubber septa were equally effective as pheromone dispensers, lasting for at least five 5 weeks in the field in the UK, although laboratory tests indicated release from the former was more uniform and more likely to last longer in the field. Increasing loading of pheromone in the dispenser increased attractiveness. Traps baited with polyethylene vials containing 0.5 mg of (R)-2-nonyl butyrate are recommended for monitoring H. marginata and these are far more sensitive than water or sticky traps currently used for monitoring this pest.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: (R)-2-nonyl butyrate; Chirality; Wheat; Traps, Dispensers; Electroantennography; Diptera; Cecidomyiidae; EAG
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Chemical Ecology Research Group
Last Modified: 30 Apr 2018 10:59
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: GREAT b
Selected for GREAT 2018: GREAT d
Selected for GREAT 2019: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/16616

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