Skip navigation

Low cost urban wastewater infrastructure for environmental sustainability across Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS)

Low cost urban wastewater infrastructure for environmental sustainability across Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS)

Tota-Maharaj, Kiran, Hills, Colin and Cheddie, Denver (2017) Low cost urban wastewater infrastructure for environmental sustainability across Caribbean small island developing states (SIDS). In: NexGen Technologies for Mining and Fuel Industries (NxGnMiFu-2017). Allied Publishers PVT. LTD, New Delhi, India, pp. 697-705. ISBN 9789385926402

PDF (Author Accepted Manuscript)
16467 TOTA-MAHARAJ_Low_Cost_Urban_Wastewater_2017.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (873kB) | Preview
Official URL:


Effluent Dominated Hydrosystems (EDHs) across the Caribbean primarily consist of surface water systems affected by discharged treated and possibly untreated runoff from urban and agricultural zones in addition to wastewater catchments. These urban water bodies are precious and vital natural resources beneficial to the Caribbean’s economy, its environment and revitalisation. Human activities influence whether a hydrosystem consists of problems including excessive withdrawal for potable water supply, water quality, emerging contaminants from untreated stormwater runoff or wastewater. Land use patterns are one of the key driving forces behind changes in hydrology for EDHs. Runoff from agricultural land has also resulted in substances such as farm chemicals, petroleum products, nutrients and organic matter being washed into the surround EDHs. Historically, many industries across Trinidad and Tobago have been developed nearby natural hydrosystems with discharging pre-treated effluents directly into the water and transported away downstream. While such practices have been semi-regulated for several years by the Environmental Management Authority (EMA) for Trinidad and Tobago, several EDHs still consist of large amounts of pollutants present in sediments. This project evaluates the application of combined Biological and Photochemical (B-P) technologies as a low cost wastewater option for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Caribbean. The application of B-P treatment for waste streams can significantly reduce industrial waste treatment cost, the water rates for farming and improve water quality in EDHs. The programme of research and implementation conducted by the University of Greenwich and the University of Trinidad and Tobago evaluates remediation technologies using two treatment processes (i) Biological and (ii) Photochemical. Although some organic contaminants can be degraded through biological process, many other composed synthetic compounds are non-biodegradable and hence the photochemical process will also be examined. The biological process is utilised like a pre-treatment step to enhance the photo-degradability and eliminate the toxicity of the effluents, whereby the total mineralization of contaminants would be completed in the photochemical process. The biological reactors are characterised by anaerobic respiration using pollutant-reducing bacteria as a terminal electron acceptor. These bacteria can thrive in human-impacted environments impacted by sewage or urban drainage. The photoreactor implements heterogeneous photocatalysts (readily available, cheap, non-toxic and inert semiconductors) such as Titanium Dioxide (TiO2). In this process TiO2 absorbs solar energy and transfers photonic energy to mobile toxic constituents. Various sources wastewater are being processed through the B-P reactors studying the kinetics of degradation.

Item Type: Conference Proceedings
Title of Proceedings: NexGen Technologies for Mining and Fuel Industries (NxGnMiFu-2017)
Additional Information: The International Conference on NexGen Technologies for Mining and Fuel Industries (NxGnMiFu-2017) was held in New Delhi, India, from 15th - 17th February 2017.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Effluent Dominated Hydrosystems (EDHs); Wastewater infrastructure; Heterogeneous photocatalysis; Anaerobic digestion; Stormwater; Water reuse; Small island developing states (SIDS)
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Faculty / School / Research Centre / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > School of Engineering (ENG)
Last Modified: 25 Sep 2017 15:26

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics