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Megasonic agitation for enhanced electrodeposition of copper

Megasonic agitation for enhanced electrodeposition of copper

Kaufmann, Jens Georg, Desmulliez, Marc P.Y., Tian, Yingtao, Price, Dennis, Hughes, Mike, Strusevitch, Nadia, Bailey, Chris ORCID: 0000-0002-9438-3879, Liu, Changqing and Hutt, David (2009) Megasonic agitation for enhanced electrodeposition of copper. Microsystem Technologies, 15 (8). pp. 1245-1254. ISSN 0946-7076 (Print), 1432-1858 (Online) (doi:

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In this paper we propose an agitation method based on megasonic acoustic streaming to overcome the limitations in plating rate and uniformity of the metal deposits during the electroplating process. Megasonic agitation at a frequency of 1 MHz allows the reduction of the thickness of the Nernst diffusion layer to less than 600 nm. Two applications that demonstrate the benefits of megasonic acoustic streaming are presented: the formation of uniform ultra-fine pitch flip-chip bumps and the metallisation of high aspect ratio microvias. For the latter application, a multi-physics based numerical simulation is implemented to describe the hydrodynamics introduced by the acoustic waves as they travel inside the deep microvias.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: [1] This paper is one of a collection of papers presented at the symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), held 9-11 April 2008, in Nice, France. A collection of selected revised papers were subsequently published in a special issue of Microsystem Technologies (Volume 15, Number 8 / August, 2009).
Uncontrolled Keywords: agitation method, megasonic acoustic streaming, plating rate, uniformity, electroplating, electrodeposition, metals, copper
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
T Technology > TN Mining engineering. Metallurgy
Pre-2014 Departments: School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Centre for Numerical Modelling & Process Analysis
School of Computing & Mathematical Sciences > Department of Mathematical Sciences
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Last Modified: 13 Mar 2019 11:32

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