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Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania

Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania

Assey, Vincent D., Tylleskär, Thorkild, Momburi, Philip B., Maganga, Michael, Mlingi, Nicholaus V., Reilly, Marie, Greiner, Ted and Peterson, Stefan (2009) Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania. BMC Public Health, 9:187. ISSN 1471-2458 (doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-187)

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Abstract

Background:
Universal salt iodation will prevent iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Globally, salt-iodation technologies mostly target large and medium-scale salt-producers. Since most producers in low-income countries are small-scale, we examined and improved the performance of hand and knapsack-sprayers used locally in Tanzania.

Methods:
We studied three salt facilities on the Bagamoyo coast, investigating procedures for preparing potassium-iodate solution, salt spraying and mixing. Different concentrations of solution were prepared and tested using different iodation methods, with the aim of attaining correct and homogeneous iodine levels under real-life conditions. Levels achieved by manual mixing were compared to those achieved by machine mixing.

Results:
The overall median iodation level in samples of salt iodated using previously existing methods was 10.6 ppm (range 1.1 – 110.0 ppm), with much higher levels in the top than the bottom layers of the salt bags, p < 0.0001. Experimentation using knapsack-sprayers and manual mixing led to the reliable achievement of levels (60.9 ppm ± 7.4) that fell within the recommended range of 40 – 80 ppm. The improved methods yielded homogenous iodine concentrations in all layers of salt-bags (p = 0.58) with 96% of the samples (n = 45) falling within 40 – 80 ppm compared to only 9% (n = 45) before the experiment and training (p < 0.0001). For knapsack-spraying, a machine mixer improved the iodine levels and homogeneity slightly compared to manual mixing (p = 0.05).

Conclusion:
Supervised, standardized salt iodation procedures adapted to local circumstances can yield homogeneous iodine levels within the required range, overcoming a major obstacle to universal salt iodation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: [1] Published: 17 June 2009. [2] Citation: Assey V.D., Tylleskar T., Momburi P.B., Maganga M., Mlingi N.V., Reilly M., Greiner T., Peterson S. Improved salt iodation methods for small-scale salt producers in low-resource settings in Tanzania (2009). BMC Public Health 2009, 9:187. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-187. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/9/187. [3] Copyright: © 2009 Assey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. [4] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: fortified food, food-processing industry, halogenation iodine administration & dosage, iodine analysis, iodine chemistry, iodine deficiency, quality Control, sodium chloride, dietary analysis, Tanzania
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2016 15:16
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/9548

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