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The role of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and farmer practices in the spread of cassava brown streak ipomoviruses

The role of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and farmer practices in the spread of cassava brown streak ipomoviruses

Maruthi, Midatharahally N. ORCID: 0000-0002-8060-866X, Jeremiah, Simon C., Mohammed, Ibrahim U. and Legg, James P. (2017) The role of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and farmer practices in the spread of cassava brown streak ipomoviruses. Journal Of Phytopathology, 165 (11-12). pp. 707-717. ISSN 0931-1785 (Print), 1439-0434 (Online) (doi:10.1111/jph.12609)

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Abstract

Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is arguably the most dangerous current threat to cassava, which is Africa’s most important food security crop. CBSD is caused by two species of cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs). The role of cassava whiteflies and farmer practices in the spread CBSVs was investigated in a set of field- and laboratory-based experiments. Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) was acquired and transmitted by Bemisia tabaci quickly (5-10 min each for virus acquisition and inoculation), and the virus was retained for up to 48 h when feeding on cassava. Maximum mean virus transmission (60%) was achieved using 20-25 viruliferous whiteflies per plant that were given acquisition and inoculation periods of 24 h each. Experiments mimicking the agronomic practices, such as cassava leaf picking, or the use of contaminated tools for making cassava stem cuttings did not show the transmission of CBSV. Screenhouse and field experiments in Tanzania showed that the maximum spread of CBSVs occurred next to spreader rows, and that the rate of spread decreased with increasing distance from the source of inoculum. The disease spread systematically in the field up to a maximum of 17 meters in a cropping season. These results collectively indicate that CBSVs are transmitted by B. tabaci semi-persistently, but for only short distances in the field. This implies that spread over longer distances is due to movements of infected stems or cuttings used for planting material. These findings have important implications for developing appropriate management strategies for CBSD.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2017 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Uncontrolled Keywords: cassava, CBSD, disease spread, virus transmission, whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agricultural Biosecurity Research Group
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Last Modified: 10 Jan 2018 14:13
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/18494

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