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Nutrient and total polyphenol contents of some dark green leafy vegetables, and estimation of their iron bioaccessibility using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

Nutrient and total polyphenol contents of some dark green leafy vegetables, and estimation of their iron bioaccessibility using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

Amagloh, Francis Kweku, Atuna, Richard Atinpoore, McBride, Richard, Carey, Edward Ewing and Christides, Tatiana (2017) Nutrient and total polyphenol contents of some dark green leafy vegetables, and estimation of their iron bioaccessibility using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model. Foods, 6 (7):54. ISSN 2304-8158 (doi:10.3390/foods6070054)

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Abstract

Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweetpotato cultivars including three orange-fleshed types with other DGLV commonly consumed DGLV in Ghana: cocoyam; corchorus; baobab; kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest amounts of iron absorption enhancers on an as-would-be-eaten basis, β-carotene (14,169 μg/100 g, p < 0.05) and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g, p < 0.001), and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein). Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweetpotato with purplish young leaves had lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 ng and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively) compared with that of moringa although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05) iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g) and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked Baobab did not enhance iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweetpotato with purplish young leaves contained the highest level of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, p < 0.001, respectively). This suggests iron bioaccessibility in greens could not be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweetpotato leaves and cocoyam leaf (widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana), the former greens have an added advantage of increasing dietary intake of provitamin A.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Uncontrolled Keywords: β-carotene; Caco-2 cell; Iron bioaccessibility; Leafy vegetable; Polyphenols
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Department of Life & Sports Sciences
Last Modified: 04 Dec 2017 10:38
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/17461

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