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Factors affecting onchocerciasis transmission: Lessons for infection control

Factors affecting onchocerciasis transmission: Lessons for infection control

Cheke, Robert A. (2017) Factors affecting onchocerciasis transmission: Lessons for infection control. Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 15 (4). pp. 377-386. ISSN 1478-7210 (Print), 1744-8336 (Online) (doi:10.1080/14787210.2017.1286980)

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Abstract

Introduction: Onchocerca volvulus infects in excess of 15 million people. The vectors are Simulium blackflies, varieties of which differ in their ecologies, behaviour and vectorial abilities. Control of the vectors and mass administrations of ivermectin have succeeded in reducing prevalences with elimination achieved in some foci, particularly in Central and southern America. In Africa, progress towards elimination has been less successful.

Areas covered: Even with community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), control has been difficult in African areas with initial prevalences in excess of 55%, especially if only annual treatments are dispensed. This is partly attributable to insufficient coverage, but the appearance of incipiently resistant non-responding parasites and lack of attention to vector biology in modelling and planning outcomes of intervention programmes have also played their parts, with recrudescence now appearing in some treated areas.

Expert commentary: The biology of onchocerciasis is complex involving different vectors with differing abilities to transmit parasites, diverse pathologies related to geographical and parasite variations and endosymbionts in both parasite and vector. Modelling to predict epidemiological and control outcomes is addressing this complexity but more attention needs to be given to the vectors’ roles to further understanding of where and when control measures will succeed.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus; Simulium damnosum complex; Vector biology; Ivermectin; Doxycycline; Moxidectin
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Agriculture, Health & Environment Department
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2018 01:38
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/16219

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