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Black dyes for coir fibre: 3 practical considerations

Black dyes for coir fibre: 3 practical considerations

Canning, A. J., Jarman, C. G. and Mykoluk, S. M. (1982) Black dyes for coir fibre: 3 practical considerations. Torpical Products Institute (TPI), London, UK. ISBN 0859541568

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Abstract

Earlier trials on Synacril Black A, Benzamin Black DS 167% and Suprexcel Black VY- three possible substitute dyes for Chlorazol Black E -showed the effect of variations in dyebath conditions on the amount of dye deposited on coir (Canning, A. J., Jarman, C. G. and Mykoluk, S. M. (1979) Black dyes for coir fibre. Part 2. Evaluation of selected dyes. Report of the Tropical Products Institute, L52). Further trials, in which both different concentrations of dye in the bath, and a standing bath were used, have now been carried out to obtain additional data on the exhaustion characteristics of the three dyes. Additionally, the effect of variations in dyebath conditions on the quality of colour, and the amount of each of the three dyes that needs to be deposited on to the fibre to produce an acceptable black, have been assessed. With all three dyes, dyebath exhaustion was approached more slowly with increased dyebath concentration. As a consequence, when additional dye is used, dyeing time must be increased to obtain the most efficient use of dye. Since the proportion of dye that exhausts from the bath is also reduced, particularly with the higher dyebath concentrations or the shorter dyeing times, increasingly large additions of dye are required in order to intensify the visual depth of shade. With low dyebath concentrations of the two direct dyes (Benzamin Black and Suprexcel Black), allowing the liquor to cool during dyeing could reduce heating costs since the exhaustion obtained after 1.5 hours at 95°C followed by cooling was similar to that obtained after 6 hours at 95°C. However, with deeper shades the opportunity for reducing heating costs by reducing dyeing time at 95°C and then cooling is less. The inclusion of sodium carbonate in the dyebath could also result in savings on dyestuff. When using a standing bath technique with Benzamin Black, significantly different exhaustion/time relationships were obtained with each batch of fibre. As a consequence there would be considerable practical difficulties in using this dye with this technique. On the other hand, the exhaustion of Suprexcel Black was only slightly affected by the use of replenished liquors and a standing bath technique could reduce costs. Because of its almost complete exhaustion, there would be no advantage in using a standing bath with the basic dye Synacril Black. All the dyes gave better light-fastness properties when they were concentrated at the periphery of the fibre rather than when they penetrated more deeply: however, staining of adjacent fabrics was greater. The distribution of the dye within the fibre did not affect the visual colour. All three dyes should produce black colours which are technically similar to those of commercial samples of black coir. The amounts which need to be deposited on the fibre to produce an acceptable black are estimated as approximately: Benzamin Black DS 167% - 19g per kilogram of fibre; Suprexcel Black VY - 22g per kilogram of fibre; Synacril Black A - 10g per kilogram of fibre. Fastness properties of the blacks vary with the dye and the technique used to apply it. Information on the development of optimum dyeing conditions is appended.

Item Type: Book
Additional Information: © Crown copyright 1982. Note on publisher affiliation: Tropical Products Institute (TPI) is a predecessor of the Natural Resources Institute (NRI). The NRI has been a specialist research and teaching institution of the University of Greenwich since 1996.
Uncontrolled Keywords: coir fibre, dye, black dye, dyebath exhaustion
Faculty / Department / Research Group: Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute
Faculty of Engineering & Science > Natural Resources Institute > Livelihoods & Institutions Department
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2016 13:47
Selected for GREAT 2016: None
Selected for GREAT 2017: None
Selected for GREAT 2018: None
URI: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/id/eprint/12041

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